Several animal models of the shoulder are currently in use, including the rat, sheep and goat, as a means to model shoulder pathology. Cynomolgus monkeys have served as nonhuman primate models in several studies including monkey models of menopause , reproductive support structures  and the knee joint. Anatomical comparisons of simian and human shoulders have demonstrated that the simian shoulder is similar to that of the human in both musculature and bony structures. A preliminary study concluded that there exists a high degree of similarity between the simian and human glenohumeral joint (GHJ). Biomechanical studies have been performed on the human IGHL to determine its tensile properties  yet there are few comparative studies of the biomechanical properties of the simian and human GHJ. The objective of this study was to determine the geometric and tensile properties of the simian IGHL as compared to those of the human IGHL.
- Bioengineering Division
Failure Properties of the Simian Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament
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Cassilly, RT, Bunting, HA, Jin, B, Ahmad, CS, Bigliani, LU, Levine, WN, & Gardner, TR. "Failure Properties of the Simian Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. June 22–25, 2011. pp. 681-682. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2011-53520
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