Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a debilitating injury associated with various complications such as joint instability, meniscal injury and chronically may lead to osteoarthritis. ACL is believed to be the primary restraint to anterior translation and axial rotation. However, few studies have investigated the alterations to the other degrees of freedom kinematics due to ACL deficiency. ACL reconstruction has been widely accepted to be the standard of care for patients who sustain an ACL rupture to minimize the risk of the complications mentioned above. Widely practiced surgical techniques have yet to prove their efficacy in comprehensively restoring the normal knee joint function. Sub-optimal performance of the conventional single bundle ACL reconstruction has sparked a renewed interest in anatomical reconstruction and alterations to the conventional techniques.

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