The assessment of cervical spine instability following traumatic injury is controversial [1, 4, 5, 8]. Typical definitions of cervical instability are based on the presence of several key detectable injuries using simple radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Although these imaging modalities have been shown to be relatively reliable for detection of fractures and very large soft tissue injuries, they are largely deficient for determining the presence of smaller soft tissue injuries, such as hyperstrained ligaments [1, 3]. Soft tissue injuries of this nature may be revealed with dynamic range of motion (ROM) assessment, such as a flexion and extension test with radiography. However, these tests are currently inadequate for determining the existence of specific injuries. Cervical soft tissue injuries demand further analysis, given the risk of severe and permanent neurological impairment that may accompany these injuries [2, 5].
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Mechanical Properties of Injured Human Cervical Spine Ligaments and Corresponding Effect on Spinal Kinematics
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Leahy, PD, & Puttlitz, CM. "Mechanical Properties of Injured Human Cervical Spine Ligaments and Corresponding Effect on Spinal Kinematics." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. June 22–25, 2011. pp. 563-564. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2011-53210
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