Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy has become an established treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure as either a bridge to transplant (BTT) or as permanent support (destination therapy: DT) [1]. For a small portion of patients, LVAD could be used as a bridge to cardiac recovery (BTR). Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the advantages of continuous-flow LVADs over pulsatile-flow counterparts with respect to higher survival rates and lower incidence of major adverse events [2]. However, the control challenge of continuous-flow LVADs has been not fully addressed: most of the devices are driven at a constant speed, which does not take into account changes in patient physiologic demands [3, 4].

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