Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the properties of shoe-surface interface conditions on natural grass and synthetic turfs [2,7,9]. It is suggested that ankle injuries are related to the torque generated in the joint. Recently, our laboratory has developed a surrogate ankle [10] for use with a rotational traction measurement apparatus on various surfaces [9]. External rotation, commonly thought as the mechanism of a high ankle sprain in football, is applied to the surrogate foot and the resistive torque is measured. The study suggests that synthetic turfs generate higher ankle torques than natural grasses, therefore implying a high injury risk on turfs. One disadvantage of these studies is that only artificial devices are used to represent the ankle. Consequently, it is not possible to determine ligament strains, which is crucial in determining ankle injury.

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