Diabetic patients are unable to effectively regulate blood glucose, which leads to periods of both hypo- and hyperglycemia . High glucose increases reactive oxygen species formation , permeability , apoptosis , and basement membrane protein production  in endothelial cells. Recently hypoglycemia has been proposed to increase reactive species and apoptosis  and upregulate VEGF .
- Bioengineering Division
Both Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Prevent Endothelial Cell Actin Fiber Alignment to Fluid Shear Stress
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Kemeny, SF, & Morss Clyne, A. "Both Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Prevent Endothelial Cell Actin Fiber Alignment to Fluid Shear Stress." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. June 22–25, 2011. pp. 345-346. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2011-53062
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