The circle of Willis (CoW) is a complex arterial network comprising of major cerebral arteries that converge to form a pentagonal arrangement as shown in Figure 1(A). This arterial network supplies oxygen-enriched blood to the brain. An incomplete CoW can exist in up to 50% of cases [1]. These missing vessels can be accommodated by the collateral flow feature within the CoW configuration. In certain circumstances, anatomical variations within the CoW can result in undesirable flow patterns [2–3]. It is unclear from the literature what effects these variations can have on blood flow collision paths within a complete CoW.

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