Myxomatous mitral valve (MV) disease is common in North America with an incidence of 1–2%. The abnormal valvular tissues in the myxomatous MV often causes mitral valve regurgitation, which requires surgical repair or replacement to prevent the reversal of blood flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium. A recent study shows that, although with an impressive initial durability, there is an increasing recognition of the reoccurrence of significant MR. For MR intervention with better long term durability, an increasing interest in MV tissue engineering has emerged recently. Another need for tissue engineered MV is from the treatment of congenital heart valve diseases. The current repair or replacement using small non-viable heart valve prosthesis (mechanical or bioprosthetic valves) cannot avoid the risky multiple valve replacement operations along with children’s growth. Therefore, the development of a living tissue engineered MV would greatly benefit both pediatric and adult MV disease population.

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