Modern surgical treatment of arterial disease is moving towards minimally invasive procedures, as the benefits are numerous. However, one area that is resisting this trend is the treatment of carotid artery disease. For the past number of decades carotid endarterectomy surgery has been referred to as the “gold standard” in the treatment of carotid artery disease. However, in recent year’s carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged to challenge carotid endarterectomy surgery (CES) as a viable alternative for the prevention of strokes. However uptake of this procedure has been hindered due to the peri-operative complications associated with the treatment. During this procedure blood flow in one of the internal carotid arteries supplying blood to the brain is interrupted for a period of time. However, it has been shown that not all patients can accommodate this interruption. Qureshi et al. suggests that ischemic neurological deficits occur in 3 to 13% of patients as a result of hemodynamic compromise.

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