Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality globally. Among various forms of cardiovascular disease, heart failure (HF) affects 5.7 million patients in the United States1. Despite optimal treatment, some patients still do not improve and the available therapies fail to control their symptoms; for them, cardiac transplantation may be the only option. However, only around 2200 transplants are performed in the US each year1, or only about 6% of the estimated 35,000 US patients who would benefit actually receive a heart. To address the need to support the circulation in patients with end-stage HF a wide variety of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs) have been developed over the past four decades.

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