Thermal therapies are important clinical modalities in patient treatment that range from long term lower temperature heating for physical therapy and tumor hyperthermia therapy to very high temperature extremely short term heating for surgery. Heat sources that are typically applied include surface contact conduction heat transfer devices, lasers, and electromagnetic field sources from 500 kHz to 2.45 GHz. Their analysis using the classical bioheat equation has proven to be an effective and useful approach to treatment planning, experiment modeling, and new device development efforts.

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