Bio-prosthetic heart valves (BHVs) with leaflets made of glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP), have been used extensively to replace diseased heart valves. BHVs display superior hemodynamics to mechanical valves and eliminate the need for anticoagulant therapy; however, they exhibit poor durability resulting from in vivo degradation and fatigue damage of the leaflets.

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