Many disease states such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes are polygenic and involve multiple organs with inter-related metabolic and vascular abnormalities, and furthermore are risk factors for other diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cardiovascular or Alzheimer’s diseases. Tissue engineering is attempting to address these diseases from the perspective of developing “spare” or “replacement” parts. Cell and tissue engineering integrates cellular and molecular biology with the principles and methods of chemical and mechanical engineering to develop biological substitutes that can restore, maintain, or control tissue function.

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