Explosions are the leading cause of death on the battlefield [1]. These explosives generate shock waves which stimulate large accelerations and deformations. The resulting loads pose serious threats to military and civilians. Since lower extremities are in direct contact with the ground, the lower extremities are commonly injured during explosions [2]. These injuries could be seriously fatal. Although experimental studies have been performed to advance these understandings [2], limited progress has been made in computational analysis of shock waves on the lower extremity.

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