Coronary artery disease (CAD), which results in inadequate blood flow to the heart, is responsible for 1 in every 4.8 deaths in the USA (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2009). Currently, there are 16.5 million patients with stable angina and 500,000 new diagnoses annually (Gibbons et al., 2003). CAD has been linked with atherosclerosis since the early 20th century (McMahan et al., 2008) and refers to the localisation of the disease in the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease that affects not only the coronary arteries, but also the carotid and other peripheral arteries in the body.

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