One of the most challenging issues in cryopreservation is to identify new and improved cryoprotective agents (CPAs) or CPA mixtures beyond widely used dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In order to address this challenge, numerous combinations of CPA mixtures need to be prepared, characterized, and screened. The characterization includes thermal properties and phase change behavior during freezing and thawing. For an example, Han et al. [1] performed analysis of the phase change behavior and the thermal properties of phosphate buffers saline (PBS) with various chemical additives (CPAs, AFPs, excess salts) using a differential scanning calorimeter and a cryo-microscope. Considering the number of possible compositions and concentration of CPA mixtures, a high throughput (HTP) screening platform capable of preparing and characterizing array of CPA mixtures is highly desired.

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