Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD) is a multi-stage degenerative joint disease. Common indicators are distinct morphological anomalies of the affected foot and the presence of pain and/or weakness along the posterior tibial tendon path. Early treatment (Stage I) can effect favorable results with nonoperative techniques including shoe orthotics. Surgical treatment begins at Stage II, which is characterized by more profound deep tissue damage to ligaments and tendons of the arch. The level of severity increases in Stages III and IV with significant joint damage including to the ankle .
- Bioengineering Division
Flatfoot and Its Surgical Treatments: a Computational Model of Common Procedures
Iaquinto, JM, & Wayne, JS. "Flatfoot and Its Surgical Treatments: a Computational Model of Common Procedures." Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Naples, Florida, USA. June 16–19, 2010. pp. 843-844. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2010-19592
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