Articular cartilage (AC) is a load bearing material that provides a low friction wear resistant interface in synovial joints. Naturally-occurring and stimulated intrinsic repair of damaged AC is challenging [1]. Thus, there is a need to guide the formation of tissue of specific size and mechanical properties for AC repair. Previous studies [2,3] with immature cartilage have shown that culture with medium containing TGF-β1 results in enhanced mechanical integrity while culture with IGF-1 results in diminished mechanical integrity. Conversely, culture with medium containing IGF-1 results in substantial volumetric growth while culture with TGF-β 1 results in little or no volumetric growth.

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