The lymphatic system is responsible for maintaining fluid and protein homeostasis, collecting approximately 4 liters of interstitial fluid per day and returning it to the venous system. Transporting this fluid, however, is no trivial task. Given that the point of return is located in the upper torso, most of the body’s lymph is pumped “uphill”. Furthermore, tissue pressures are very low, no higher than 15 mmHg, suggesting that lymph flow is not solely pressure driven. In fact, lymphatic vessels rely on intrinsic and extrinsic pumping mechanisms to propel lymph.

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