During cardiac c-looping, an important developmental phase in early heart development, the initially straight heart tube (HT) is transformed into a c-shaped tube. Two distinct processes, ventral bending and dextral rotation, constitute c-looping. Previous research suggests that ventral bending is likely driven by forces that are intrinsic to the heart while dextral rotation is driven by forces applied by a pair of omphalomesenteric veins that flank the heart tube and a membrane called the splanchnopleure that lies on top of the heart.

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