Tissue regeneration can be enhanced by introduction of biochemical and mechanical cues. We investigated the effect of thermal and mechanical stress alone or in combination with growth factors (GFs) (BMP-2 and TGF-β1) on cell proliferation and induction of heat shock proteins and bone-related proteins by MC3T3-E1mouse preosteoblasts. Thermal and mechanical stress conditioning alone induced bone-related proteins such as osteocalcin (OCN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP47, HSP70). Cell proliferation was increased by cyclic tension in combination with growth factors. Combined thermal and mechanical stress induced synergistic expression of HSPs and VEGF. Therefore, utilization of thermal and tensile stress conditioning can stimulate bone healing or regeneration.

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