Arterial bypass grafting is the most common surgical procedure to alleviate critical ischemia and intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, the failure rate of bypass grafting remains high; up to 20% within the first year of implantation and up to 50% within five years [1, 2]. The failure of the graft is usually due to occlusion by intimal hyperplasia (IH) followed by thrombosis. Although the exact mechanisms of IH remain unclear, the focal distribution of stenotic lessions suggest that the hemodynamic conditions within the graft are intimately related to the remodelling process [3].

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