Atherosclerosis depends on systemic risk factors but manifests itself as geometrically focal plaques, which appear in regions of the arterial tree experiencing low and/or oscillating Wall Shear Stress (WSS) such as outer edges of vessels bifurcations and highly curved vessels. Because direct measurements of WSS (differential quantity) in vivo are difficult due to limited spatial resolution offered by current measuring technologies (ultrasound, phase contrast MRI), an indirect approach is often taken, integrating medical imaging techniques (biplane angiography, CT, MRI) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for patient specific WSS profiling.

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