The clinical potential of stem cells has driven forward efforts toward their optimization for tissue engineering applications. The intimal layer of the synovium is composed of two cell types, macrophages and fibroblast-like cells. The fibroblast-like cells, often referred to as synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (sMSCs), have the capability to differentiate down a chondrogenic lineage1. In addition, in vivo tests have shown that synovial cells may be recruited from the synovial membrane to aid in the repair of articular cartilage defects2.

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