Single ventricle congenital heart defects are among the most challenging for pediatric cardiologists to treat. Children born with these defects are cyanotic, and these conditions are nearly uniformly fatal without treatment. A series of surgeries is performed to palliate single ventricle defects. The first stage consists of aortic reconstruction in a Norwood procedure. In the second stage, the Bidirectional Glenn procedure, the superior vena cava (SVC) is disconnected from the heart and redirected into the pulmonary arteries (PA’s). In the third and final stage, the Fontan procedure, the inferior vena cava (IVC) is connected to the PA’s via a straight Gore-Tex tube, forming a T-shaped junction with or without offset. Patient specific modeling tools provide a means to evaluate new designs with the goal of lowering long-term morbidity and improving patients’ quality of life.

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