Approximately 1.5 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur each year which result in 50,000 deaths, and about 80,000 people are left with a permanent disability. The annual cost associated with these injures is estimated to be $60 billion. Because there is no pharmacological treatment for TBI, engineering strategies to prevent these injuries enabled through an improved understanding of injury biomechanics is crucial. To this end, finite element models play a central role for predicting brain deformation induced by various loading scenarios such as falls or motor vehicle accidents. Novel protection strategies can then be tested in silico before the start of physical testing. However, in their current form, finite element models predict only mechanical responses and cannot predict the biological response of the brain tissue to the imposed deformation.

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