Spatial and temporal regulation of chemical environments in and around cells or tissues for long time periods is important to understand multicellular signaling since the responses to chemical factors control the resulting coordinated events in development. Although progress has been made in command of single cell environments, both long-term and high-speed control of multicellular chemical environments in development is still challenging. We have developed a mechanical engineering based microfluidic feedback approach that allows long-term and high-speed manipulation of a laminar flow interface in a microfluidic channel. This approach enabled long-term spatiotemporal control of chemical conditions over Animal Cap (AC) explants during the gastrulation stage in Xenopus laevis embryonic development. We present the responses of the explants to periodic stimulation of steroid hormone dexamethasone (DEX) by tracking a hormone-activated nuclear-localizing green fluorescent protein tagged glucocorticoid receptor (nuc-GR-GFP). We believe that our approach will be useful in diverse areas including dynamic system and control in microfluidics, embryonic development, and spatiotemporally integrated biological responses.

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