High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of humans and animals in vivo is routine and non-invasive. Identifying and quantifying chemical composition of tissue from acquired images is a challenge. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may be used to identify chemical components accurately over a finite volume in the tissue. However, the temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Multi-spectral MRI exploits the multiple modes of MR such as T1, T2 and proton density maps and classifies voxels into different tissue types, but the chemical identity of the tissue remains unknown. Many fat suppression methods were developed because the unwanted fat signal often compromises image interpretability in clinical MRI, but these techniques are sensitive to MR field inhomogeneity. Multi-point Dixon methods separate MR images into water and fat images and are less sensitive to field inhomogeneity  and IDEAL-MRI (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation) improved upon the Dixon methods by avoiding the problem of phase unwrapping . However, special care has to be taken when estimating the field map to avoid erroneous solutions to the least-squares estimation problem which lead to artifacts such as swapping of water and fat. The use of region growing schemes (with a reliable seed) mitigates this problem as demonstrated in previous studies . However, the seed is not always reliable and growing schemes can be sensitive to phase discontinuities. Moreover, although the technology was successfully demonstrated on many clinical scanners, only limited applications were found in preclinical scanners with high MR field where the field inhomogeneity can be far worse . We developed a robust and accurate algorithm to compute water and fat content on an 11.7T small animal scanner by improving upon existing phase estimation methods through multiple starting pixels and consensus-based region growing. The method, after further validation, has the potential of providing a translatable assay to study disease progression and regression related to fat and water contents in various animal models, such as studying atherosclerotic plaque composition.
- Bioengineering Division
Water-Fat Decomposition by IDEAL-MRI With Phase Estimation: A Method to Determine Chemical Contents In Vivo
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Xu, J, Hu, X, Tang, H, Kennan, R, & Azer, K. "Water-Fat Decomposition by IDEAL-MRI With Phase Estimation: A Method to Determine Chemical Contents In Vivo." Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Naples, Florida, USA. June 16–19, 2010. pp. 185-186. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2010-19296
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