Maintaining tissue functionality is crucial for successful cryopreservation. However, current understanding of the effects of cryopreservation including those of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) on post-thaw tissue functionality is still very limited. In numerous cryopreservation protocols, CPAs such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used. Different concentrations and combinations of CPAs have been reported to be advantageous in maintaining post-thaw tissue functionality, but the determination of their optimum composition often requires extensive experimental studies due to the lack of understanding of their effects on the biophysics of the tissues during freezing.

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