Despite the tremendous success of vascular stents in treating occlusive artery disease, failure due to excessive neointimal hyperplasia resulting in the formation of a new blockage (termed restenosis) is still unacceptably high. While drug-eluting stents have reduced restenosis rates in coronary application, many problems (e.g. late term thrombosis, incomplete endothelialization, lack of success in peripheral arteries, hypersensitivity) and high cost still have raised concerns of their exclusive use. Regardless of the failure rates, vascular stenting is the standard treatment for occlusive artery disease, and as their use is likely to continually increase there is an imperative need to increase the success rate of this interventional therapy.

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