The knowledge of in-vivo ACL forces is instrumental for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and for improving surgical ACL reconstruction techniques. Several in-vitro investigations have measured ACL forces in response to various loads applied to the knee. However, in-vivo ACL forces in response to controlled loading are still unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the force of healthy ACL as well as the possible upper bound of ACL forces under an increasing axial tibial loading in living subjects using a non-invasive method.

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