Electroporation is an elegant means to gain access to the cytoplasm, and to deliver molecules into the cell while simultaneously maintaining viability and functionality. In this technique, electric pulses are applied to transiently permeabilize the cell membrane. Biologically active agents, such as DNA, RNA, and amino acids, can then enter the cell to perform tasks such as gene and cancer therapy. Despite wide applications, electroporation faces significant challenges to achieve simultaneous high delivery efficiency and cell viability. Addressing such challenges requires the development of good fundamental understanding and a quantitative prediction capability, and the current work is a step toward this goal.

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