Millions of people worldwide suffer from an involuntary leakage of urine, a condition known as urinary incontinence. In the US alone, the estimated cost of managing this is more than $16 billion [1]. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common form, is characterized by involuntary leakage of urine from effort or exertion during actions such as laughing, coughing, or sneezing. SUI largely occurs as a result of weak or damaged pelvic muscles that support the bladder and urethra, which makes the urethra unable to maintain its seal and allows urine to leak. Current SUI treatments such as pelvic floor muscle training, vaginal inserts, pharmacologic therapeutics, and surgical procedures are limited by ineffectiveness and/or subsequent complications [2, 3].

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.