Low back pain is sometimes related to, but not necessarily caused by, anulus fibrosus (AF) ruptures. Studies on low back pain have estimated an annual incidence of 5% and prevalence of 15% to 20% in United States alone [1]. Disc degeneration with or without herniation is frequently implicated in low back pain and sciatica, and is believed to be associated with segmental instability of the spine [2].

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