Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most severe forms of coronary artery disease and is the leading cause of death in the United States [1]. Current treatments for an MI are either highly invasive, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and stent angioplasty, or might have undesirable long-term effects as is the case with pharmacological interventions. However, newly emerging methodologies, such as a less invasive stem cell therapy, aim to cure the disease rather than just alleviate its symptoms. This new tissue engineering technology has shown promise in restoring the homeostasis of the heart muscle after MI in preclinical and clinical studies [2]. However, controversies regarding inconsistent methodologies and a lack of mechanistic understanding of its actions have hampered progress in this field [3].

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