In the central nervous system, the subarachnoid space is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater. It is filled with a clear, watery liquid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF buffers the brain against mechanical shocks and creates buoyancy to protect it from the forces of gravity. The relative motion of the brain due to a simultaneous loading is caused because the skull and brain have different densities and the CSF surrounds the brain. The impact experiments are usually carried out on cadavers with no CSF included because of the autolysis. Even in the cadaveric head impact experiments by Hardy et al. [1], where the specimens are repressurized using artificial CSF, this is not known how far this can replicate the real functionality of CSF. With such motivation, a special interest lies on how to model this feature in a finite element (FE) modeling of the human head because it is questionable if one uses in vivo CSF properties (i.e. bulk modulus of 2.19 GPa) to validate a FE human head against cadaveric experimental data.

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