Early studies of cranial kinematics were primarily limited to sagittal plane assessments of motion secondary to impact in volunteers, models, anthropometric dummies and human specimens [1]. With advances in instrumentation and imaging technology, more relevant studies of three dimensional (3-D) motion began to emerge. More complex 3-D head kinematics were first quantified with arrays of precisely positioned multi-axis accelerometers [1]. This evolution in quantitative ability has continued to the present time with the application of high speed motion capture systems and more sophisticated mathematical models.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.