Membrane tethers can form naturally such as during leukocyte rolling (pre-adhesion) stage. Tethers can also be experimentally pulled from cellular membranes to estimate membrane mechanical and electromechanical properties, including bending modulus, adhesion energy of the membrane-cytoskeleton interaction, tension, and electromechanical forces produced by membranes. This technique has been effectively applied to a variety of cells such as red blood cells , neutrophils , and cochlear outer hair cells [3,4]. Fig. 1 presents the experiment where tethers are pulled from cellular membranes using optically trapped beads.
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Computational Analysis of the Tether Pulling Experiment to Probe Cellular Membranes
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Schumacher, K, Popel, A, Anvari, B, Brownell, W, & Spector, A. "Computational Analysis of the Tether Pulling Experiment to Probe Cellular Membranes." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 551-552. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206324
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