The Fontan procedure is a surgery performed to treat patients with single ventricle congenital heart defects. The Fontan is the final of three surgical stages. The first stage consists of aortic reconstruction, in a Norwood procedure or variant thereof. In the second stage, the Bidirectional Glenn procedure, the superior vena cava (SVC) is disconnected from the heart and redirected into the pulmonary arteries (PAs). In the third and final stage, the inferior vena cava (IVC) is connected to PAs via a straight Gore-Tex tube, forming a T-shaped junction. Although early survival rates following the Fontan procedure can exceed 90%, significant morbidity remains after surgery including venous hemodynamic abnormalities, diminished exercise capacity, thromboembolic complications, protein-losing enteropathy, heart transplant etc. .
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Optimization of an Idealized Y-Graft for the Fontan Procedure Using CFD and a Derivative-Free Optimization Algorithm
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Yang, W, Feinstein, JA, Reddy, VM, & Marsden, AL. "Optimization of an Idealized Y-Graft for the Fontan Procedure Using CFD and a Derivative-Free Optimization Algorithm." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 449-450. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206492
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