Ultrasound has been widely used to non-destructively evaluate many kinds of materials, from metals to ceramics with more recent applications in bone tissues. Due to the adaptability of living bone to its mechanical environment both exercise and disease can have a profound effect on bone properties, and its ability to perform its necessary functions. Osteoporosis has become increasingly important as its manifestations are felt throughout the healthcare system. Osteoporosis is responsible for over 1.5 million fractures annually , which in turn cause disability and other health problems and increased mortality. The population affected is ever growing, and currently includes over 10 million Americans, with 34 million more at immediate risk (with osteopenia).  Recently, Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) has begun to be used to assess bone quality and fracture risk; providing a more informative and safer technique than DEXA for osteoporosis diagnosis.  QUS provides useful information about bone structure; however currently remains mainly a correlative method for quality and fracture risk prediction.
- Bioengineering Division
Non-Invasive Bone Deformation Measurements Using a Pulsed-Phase-Locked-Loop Technique
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Serra-Hsu, F, & Qin, Y. "Non-Invasive Bone Deformation Measurements Using a Pulsed-Phase-Locked-Loop Technique." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 381-382. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206869
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