Walking is important for human health, and independent ambulation predicts quality of life [1]. The study and treatment of neurological and joint disorders that inhibit walking would be more effective if muscle and joint forces could be determined reliably for individual patients. Knowledge of muscle forces is needed to characterize muscle coordination, which is a factor in neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke, while knowledge of joint contact forces is needed to characterize articular loading, which is a factor in bone and joint disorders such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Reliable determination of these internal forces for individual patients would facilitate the design of customized surgical and rehabilitation treatments that maximize functional outcome.

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