It is known that arteries adapt and remodel to changes in their loading conditions. Evolution of mechanical properties of blood vessels is associated with numerous chronic and acute conditions such as hypertension and coronary thrombosis. In addition, treatments such as bypass surgery create loading conditions not seen in normal arteries. Blood vessels used in coronary bypass grafts experience abnormal loading conditions in both circumferential and axial directions. Blood vessels remodel by altering structural components to restore homeostatic values of stress. Such changes may include smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and collagen synthesis, degradation, and remodeling. While biaxial mechanical tests and organ culture experiments provide values for global variables such as mean stresses and total thickness, mathematical models can help describe local mechanical properties at locations throughout the vessel wall. Experimental observations suggest that constituents of arteries turnover at different rates; thus, it is important that models are able to track individual constituents of the artery separately. Here, we present a 3D constrained mixture model for growth and remodeling of arteries exposed to large changes in flow, pressure, and axial stretch -induced.

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