The Fontan procedure [1] is the staged, palliative surgical approach used to treat patients suffering from single ventricle congenital heart defects. The second stage of this procedure involves the connection of the superior vena cava (SVC) to the pulmonary arteries (PAs) in either an end-to-side (known as the Bi-Directional Glenn (BDG)) or side-to-side (or Hemi-Fontan (HF)) fashion. Because of obvious disparities at the connection site, there are understandable differences in the fluid dynamics between the two geometries.

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