Modeling diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF) was first pioneered by Karlsson et al. [1]. The classical model in this work was further improved several studies later [2,3]. Nevertheless, as mentioned by Karlsson et al. in their original work [1], the approach used in the previous studies to estimate viscosity and mutual diffusion coefficient of intracellular solutions, the two most important properties that determine the rate of ice nucleation and crystal growth, is inaccurate. Moreover, the existing models are difficult to be used to study the intracellular ice nucleation and growth in different types of cells. In this study, the diffusion-limited IIF model was further improved with the capability to study the cell type dependence. The viscosity and diffusion coefficient of intracellular solution in the presence of glycerol during cryopreservation were estimated using free volume models reported in [4].

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