Simulations based on forward dynamics have been used to identify the biomechanical mechanisms how human movement is generated. They used either net joint torques  or muscle forces [2, 3, 4] as actuators to drive forward simulation. However, very few models used EMG-based patterns to define muscle excitations  or were actually driven by EMGs. Muscle activation patterns vary from subject to subject and from movement to movement, and the activations depend on the control task, sometimes quite different even for the same joint angle and joint torque . Using EMG as input can account for subjects’ different muscle activation patterns and help revealing the neuromuscular control strategies.
- Bioengineering Division
An EMG-Driven Forward Dynamics Model to Simulate Stance Phase of Gait
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Shao, Q, Manal, K, & Buchanan, TS. "An EMG-Driven Forward Dynamics Model to Simulate Stance Phase of Gait." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 1217-1218. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206715
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