Simulations based on forward dynamics have been used to identify the biomechanical mechanisms how human movement is generated. They used either net joint torques [1] or muscle forces [2, 3, 4] as actuators to drive forward simulation. However, very few models used EMG-based patterns to define muscle excitations [4] or were actually driven by EMGs. Muscle activation patterns vary from subject to subject and from movement to movement, and the activations depend on the control task, sometimes quite different even for the same joint angle and joint torque [5]. Using EMG as input can account for subjects’ different muscle activation patterns and help revealing the neuromuscular control strategies.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.