In traditional acupuncture, fine needles are inserted and rotated at specific locations on the body that correspond to specific therapeutic effects, which can occur locally or at a distance from the needling point. The majority of acupuncture points co-align with fascial planes under the skin, which present more subcutaneous connective tissue [1] (Fig 1). Needle insertion and rotation induces this connective tissue to couple to and wind around the needle, forming a whorl of alignment and generating measurable force on the needle that is significantly higher at fascial planes in comparison to insertion above a muscle [2, 3]. However, the effects of the varying tissue anatomy at fascial planes on fiber winding are not known. At these planes, the tissue is bounded on two sides by skeletal muscle and generally becomes narrower with increasing depth, presenting distinct boundary conditions compared to locations above a muscle, which resembles an infinite plane.

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