Bypass conduits provide an alternative route around critically blocked arteries. Current surgical anastomosis techniques and the design of synthetic coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) frequently lead to post-surgical complications such as intimal thickening, restenosis and eventual long term graft failure. Pathological hemodynamic states are usually precursors of intimal hyperplasia or platelet deposition and result in graft occlusion. From fluid mechanics perspective, abnormalities in coronary flow include recirculation zones, low/oscillating shear stresses, vortices, and areas of stagnation within the CABG.

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