Tissue engineering may require precise patterning of cells and bioactive components to recreate the complex, 3D architecture of native tissue. However, it is difficult to image and track cells and bioactive factors once they are incorporated into the tissue engineered construct. These bioactive factors and cells may also need to be moved during tissue growth in vitro or after implantation in vivo to achieve the desired tissue properties, or they may need to be removed entirely prior to implantation for biosafety concerns.

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