Back pain is among the most common musculoskeletal complaints. To understand the etiology of back pain, biomechanical models are commonly used to estimate forces on the spine during activities of daily life. To date, these models have considered only the lumbar spine in healthy men due to interest in occupational low back pain. However, vertebral fractures and other injuries are also common in the thoracic region of the spine. Yet, the ribcage and sternum present technical challenges that necessitate different mechanical considerations in the thoracic spine.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.